Indonesian bio diversities, herbal plants as effective functional foods

Indonesian bio diversities, herbal plants as effective functional foods

Convention on Herbal Medicine in Indonesia
At Malang, East Jawa, Indonesia
On July 26, 2010

Presented by
Ingrid Waspodo, Ph.D. : University of Indonesia
Toshiaki Nishigaki, Ph.D.: Research Association of Tropical Medicinal Plants
Min Gao, MD, Ph.D.  : Mukogawa Women’s University
Kunitaka Hirose , Ph.D. : Effector Cell Institute

Materials & Methods and Results

1 Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia)

We have been unveiling the effectiveness of Indonesia noni juice since 2000 and found many functions including actions of anti-bacteria, anti-DNA injury, anti-mutagenicity, anti-hypertension, anti-platelet aggregation, blood fluidity improvement, anti-reactive oxygen species etc.

Recently we found longevity action of Indonesian noni juice using Spontaneous Hypertension Stroke Prone Rats (SHRSP). SHRSP rats develops hypertension following by haemorrhage and or infarction in the brain at rate of almost 100% resulting in death.

100% pure freshly squeezed noni juice from matured fruits was added to 0.1% sodium chloride tap water at 10% and given to 6 week-old male SHRSP rats ad libitum and the control rats were provided 0.1% NaCl water only (each group, n=10).
They were monitored for the onset of stroke prone and death until all animals were dead.

As shown in Figure, Noni juice group survived longer than the control. Mean survival days of the control and Noni juice groups were 77 days and 107 days, respectively. Statistical significance was observed.
At 2 weeks after experiment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures of noni treated rats were significantly lower than the control.
From the present study, Indonesian fresh noni juice from matured fruits may help patients with hypertension and/or stroke in the brain.

2 Extra virgin coconut oil (EVCO) (Cocos nucifera)

EVCO comprises of more than 60 % medium chain fatty acids and 90% saturated fatty acids, but no trans fatty acids. Because of these compositions, EVCO is highly expected to prevent atheromatous arteriosclerosis resulting in chronic blood vessel associated diseases, obesity, allergies, breast cancer, diabetes mellitus and so on.
Efficacy of EVCO against metabolic syndrome was reported at ICTMP.
CABI group found its effect for diabetes mellitus in animal model.

We examined the effect on longevity in SHRSP rats. Indonesian made EVCO was mixed with diet at 10% concentration. As a control, Shortening marketing in Japan was given in the same fashion as EVCO group.

As shown in Figure, the animals given Shortening developed earlier death than that provided by EVCO. Mean survival days of Shortening and EVCO groups were 89 days and 104 days, respectively. The difference revealed statistically significant.

 

Our result can promise the patients with stroke and/or blood disease the longevity.

3 Buah Merah (Pandanus conoideus

Buah Merah is grown exclusively in Papua island and its extracted oil has been utilized by native tribes for tens thousands years.
Our research group and co-work group of Nagasaki University have found higher content of novel micronutrient, beta-cryptoxanthin first in the world.
Beta-cryptoxanthin has been the focus of the world attention as chemo-preventive natural functional ingredient for cancers of the lungs, prostate, colons, etc.

We presented the data on in vitro anti-cancer potential at PATPI in 2007 and entire profile of Buah Merah is presented in our books published in Indonesia and Japan.
In addition to in vitro study, we have been studying anti-cancer actions of BM in cancer cells-bearing mice.

Today, we show one anti-cancer effect of BM using human non-small cancer cells, A549 in BALB/C nude mice.

A549 tumor mass was subcutaneously implanted and from Day 14 till Day 60, 0.5mL of BM per animal was orally given. The tumor volumes were measured periodically. At Day 61, all the mice were sacrificed and tumor weights were measured.

As shown in Figue, compared to the control, tumor mass of BM treated group was smaller in volume and there was significant difference in the tumor mass of Day 55. From the average tumor weights at Day 61, the inhibition percentage on tumor proliferation by BM treatment was 43.6%, though there was no significance.
Thus, Buah Merah will be one of most influencial chemopreventive agent for lung cancer, especially for heavy smokers.

Discussion

We are sure that Indonesia is one of rich countries in terms of biodiversities, especially tropical medicinal plants. Some of them have been utilized as Jamu, but many remain undeveloped.
Today we presented efficacies and usefulness of some indigenous medicinal plants and microbes. Each has specific function for various health conditions and diseases. We have to continue unveil of pharmacological actions of these bio-diverse species in accordance with internationally accepted standards as much as possible.

Needless to say, our bio-diverse species may tremendously help our people to provide benefits and welfare if they could be successfully developed as functional foods or alternative medicines, in order to materialize self-medication or preventive medicine.

The tasks for research and development of our indigenous sources, it takes time, costs a lot, and requires reputable manpower and organized R/D system.
It is our desire to combine powers from concerning and interesting parties into one for R/D of our bio-diverse natural resources.